Glossary of Thomson Scientific terminology

 

This glossary provides definitions for patent and scientific terms or concepts used by Thomson Scientific in our products and literature. We would be pleased to receive your suggestions for additions to this glossary: you can email these to our Technical Support team.

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ABEX

STN field label for Derwent World Patents Index Extension Abstracts. For Dialog the corresponding field label is XA, and for Questel.Orbit this is EX. See Extension Abstract and DWPIX.

abandon

The explicit or implicit relinquishment of a potential patent right. Simple inaction may render a patent right abandoned

abstract

A statement summarizing the important points of a text. Brief summary or description of the essential content of an article, chapter or other complete work. Abstracts are frequently written by the author of the complete work.

abstract - Derwent

Derwent subject experts review patent specifications and write a concise description of the of the claims and disclosures of an invention, in English.

abstract - ISI

ISI indexes all English-language author abstracts in their entirety (where supplied by the publisher). Abstracts are made available in several product formats.

affidavit

A signed statement (filed with the patent office) putting appropriate facts or opinions on record.

Alert

1. See Alerting Abstract. 2. See SDI.

Alerting Abstract

Alerting (Online) abstract consists of Title, Novelty, Detailed Description, Activity, Mechanism of Action, Use, Advantage & Description of Drawing(s) Fields. Is available to everyone online. It also forms the abstract in the printed Alerting Bulletins.

AM

Section A Multipunch - the Plasdoc coding system used for polymers from 1966-1994.

AN

Accession Number. A unique identifier given to an individual record or patent (family). For Derwent World Patents Index also called the Primary Accession Number (PAN). See also SAN.

annotation

A critical or explanatory note, usually included in a bibliographical entry or reference.

annual

Any publication with a frequency of once a year, every year.

anticipation

When the prior art indicates that a patent application lacks novelty.

API

American Petroleum Institute

APP

Automotive Patents Profiles.

applicant

The person or corporate body that applies for the patent and intends to 'work' the invention (to manufacture or license the technology). Under US law the applicants must be the inventor(s) except under exceptional circumstances.

application (for Patent)

Papers comprising petition, specification, drawings (when required), one or more claims, oath or declaration and filing fee, whereby an applicant seeks a patent.

assignee

The person(s) or corporate body to whom all or limited rights under a patent are legally transferred. Assignment Transfer of all or limited rights under a patent.

assignor

One who assigns a patent right.

Association of Research Libraries (ARL)

The ARL is a not-for-profit membership organization comprising the leading research libraries in North America. Its mission is to shape and influence forces affecting the future of research libraries in the process of scholarly communication. There are currently 120 member institutions.

auslegeschrift

An examined German patent application (second publication) now eliminated (see Offenlegungsschrift and Patentschrift).

author

Writer of an article, chapter or other complete work. Some articles, proceedings, or books have multiple authors. In such cases, the first author specified in the reference may be called the primary author or the senior author. The names of the authors following that of the primary author are referred to as the secondary or co-authors. Corporations, government agencies and associations may also be listed as authors of a work.

ISI indexes all source authors. Primary and secondary authors of a source article are searchable in the print and electronic products. ISI also indexes all cited authors. The first cited author in each reference is searchable in all products. Unique to the Web of Science® is the ability to search on secondary authors in the cited reference field.

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baselines

Baselines are measures of cumulative citation frequency across all Derwent Section classes. Baselines are able to show trends (both upward and downward) within a particular patent family. Derwent Patent Indicators offers two sets of baselines: Derwent section averages and percentiles.

Basic

See Basic Patent.

basic Patent

The first member of a Derwent patent family. This may or may not be the first published patent (which is usually the first to be documented by services such as Derwent World Patents Index).

Beilstein

A major structure and factual database in organic chemistry.

bibliographic coupling

When two papers cite one or more of the same articles, they are said to be "bibliographically coupled". The more articles they cite in common, the stronger their subject relationship to one another.

bibliographic management tool

Software that enables the end-user to arrange and store bibliographic references on a customized basis in an electronic format.

ISI offers three bibliographic software packages: Reference Manager®, EndNote® and Pro-Cite®.

bibliographic reference

Standard entry that refers the end user to an original source of information referenced or cited by an author in the main body of the text. A bibliographic reference usually includes title of article, chapter or complete work, author, source, and where appropriate, the volume number, issue number and pagination.

ISI indexes these bibliographic references or citations. The use of bibliographic references demonstrates the value of a specific work across a variety of journals and disciplines and through time. (See cited reference searching). By tracking the frequency with which a specific bibliographic reference appears across a wide variety of journals, one is better able to evaluate the importance of that work to a multidisciplinary audience.

bibliography

A listing of references to source material on a given topic appearing at the end of an article, chapter or other complete work. References are usually listed alphabetically by author name.

bibliometrics

Study of the quantitative data of the publication patterns of individual articles, journals, and books in order to analyze trends and make comparisons within a body of literature.
See also: Scientometrics

biennial

Any serial or periodical with a frequency of publication of every two years.

bimonthly

Any publication where the frequency of publication is every other month.

Biosystematic Codes

Five-digit codes that represent taxonomic groups above the genus level. Associated with each Biosystematic Code is a Biosystematic Heading. Biosystematic headings are also known as super taxa.

Biosystematic Headings

See Biosystematic Codes.

Boolean searching

A method of combining concepts in a search which allows the searcher to narrow or broaden the focus of a search. Boolean logic uses three logical commands (sometimes called "operators"). These operators are the words AND, OR, and NOT.

The OR command is used to expand or broaden search results to include synonyms and related terms.

Example: violence or conflict or aggression. This search string would retrieve any record that held any of those three words.

The AND command is used to narrow or restrict search results.

Example: violence and conflict and aggression. This search string would retrieve any record that contained all of those three words. Note, however, that this search would not retrieve any record that had only two of the three terms.

The NOT command is used to further restrict search results.

Example: television and broadcasting not video. In this instance the search string would retrieve records that had both the terms "television" and "broadcasting" but would eliminate those records if they also contained the word "video".

The addition of parentheses enables the searcher to specify which segment of the search string is to be evaluated first.

Example: television and (violence or aggression). In this instance, the search engine will look first for items that contain either of the terms "violence" or "aggression". It will then narrow down those search results even further to contain only the records that have the word television as well as either of the other two terms.

Bradford's Law

The concept that the most significant articles to any given field of investigation are found within a relatively small group of journal publications. According to S.C. Bradford, the essential core of journal literature for the bulk of scientific research is to be found in a group of approximately 2000 journals. Different sets of journals from this basic core will have a greater relevance to one topic, and weaker relevance to several other topics.

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C?

Clinical Unknown Phase from IDdb. In clinical development, but the phase is unknown.

C1

Phase I (IDdb). Initial toxicity testing in healthy volunteers (except for drugs that are potential treatments for life-threatening diseases such as cancer and HIV, which go straight into subjects suffering from the target disease).

C2

Phase II (IDdb). Small-scale testing in the target population, to assess therapeutic effects and to establish dose levels for phase III trials.

C3

Phase III (IDdb). Large-scale trials in patients, usually at several centres, double-blind and randomised. May also be compared to other agents.

CAB

Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau

CABICODE

A classification code that indicates a broad subject area. Each CABICODE consists of two letters followed by three numbers.

Chemical Indexing

BCE Chemical Fragmentation Codes. See Fragmentation Codes.

CIP

See Continuation-in-part

citation - Derwent

Citations may be made by the examiner or author. They comprise a list of references that are believed to be relevant prior art and which may have contributed to the "narrowing" of the original application. The examiner can also cite references from technical journals, textbooks, handbooks and sources.

citation - ISI

A citation is a reference published with a scholarly journal article. ISI includes all these citations in it's citation databases, and this unique compilation makes possible cited reference searching. (See also bibliographic reference.)

citation counts

Citation counts are a formal acknowledgement of intellectual debt to earlier patants and previously-published scientific research papers. They are an important indicator of how new patents are linked to earlier patents and scientific papers.

Citation counts are recognized as units of influence or impact on technological development. That is, a patent builds on earlier patents, and thus advances the technology. By tabulating and aggregating citation counts, Derwent Patent Indicators offers a unique perspective for patent evaluation and comparison.

citation index

A citation index is a bibliographic tool in print or electronic format that lists all referenced or cited source items published in a given time span. The tool is a useful method for tracking the historical development -- backwards and forwards in time -- of an idea or given topic within the literature published in a wide selection of journal titles. What distinguishes it from other indexes is that it includes all the cited references (footnotes or bibliographies) published with each article it covers. For a more detailed explanation, please see the essay: The Concept of Citation Indexing: A Unique and Innovative Tool for Navigating the Research Literature

cited half-life

Cited half-life is a measurement used to estimate the impact of a journal. It is the number of years, going back from the current year, that account for 50% of the total citations received by the cited journal in the current year.

ISI developed this calculation to provide an indicator as to the long-term value of source items in a single journal publication. The cited half life calculation appears only in the Journal Citation Reports® (JCR®)

cited reference

ISI indexes extensive information about each article indexed in its products including the article's cited reference list (often called its bibliography). This information allows a user to search the citation indexes for articles that cite a known author or work.
See also: cited reference searching

cited reference searching

Cited reference searching, unique to ISI, lets you use a given work as if it were a subject term to identify more recent articles on the same topic. For example, you can find all works that reference articles published by A. Williamson in 1995 in the Journal of Neurophysiology (J Neurophysiol). This type of searching often locates relevant articles that cannot be retrieved through traditional subject-author searching.

citing half-life

The number of journal publication years, going back from the current year, that account for 50% of the total citations given by the citing journal in the current year.

ISI developed this calculation to provide an indicator of the subtle changes in scope of a publication over the course of time. Evaluation of this factor can provide information on the cross-disciplinary nature of research in a specific field of interest. For additional information on measure, see the essay: Expected Citation Rates, Half-Life, and Impact Ratios: Comparing Apples to Apples in Evaluation Research

claim(s)

The definition of the monopoly rights that the applicant is trying to obtain for the invention. The claims become the actual monopoly that is given when/if the patent is granted.

CN

Compound Number. Identifier for records in DWPI Markush (now Merged Markush Service). Includes Markush CNs and SCNs. Also called DCN.

company code

To standardize company names, Derwent assigns a unique four-letter code to approximately 21,000 companies worldwide.

Compound descriptor

Broad concept indexing term applied to+B93 compounds in Derwent Chemistry Resource. Compound descriptors are assigned intellectually. E.g. ‘natural product’, ‘macrocycle’.

Concept Codes

Five-digit codes that represent broad subject areas in the life sciences.

Consystant

Program supplied with ISIS/Draw to inter-convert chemical structure formats including MOLfile, SMILES and ROSDAL. Does not work with STR or VMN files.

context-sensitive linking

The technology of linking to the Web-based resources available to a user, based on the defined collection of an organization. The resources could include proprietary databases, electronic journal articles, or free Internet resources.
See also: SFX, OpenURL

continuation (see Continuing Applications)

Applicable mainly in the US, continuations are second or subsequent applications which are subsequently filed while the original parent application is pending. Continuations must claim the same invention as the original application to gain the benefit of the parent filing date.

continuation-in-part (see Continuing Applications)

Generally referred to as a 'C.I.P' this is essentially the same as the continuation with the exception that some new material may be included. The disclosure of the parent is usually amplified and the C.I.P may claim the same or a different invention. A C.I.P application is accorded the benefit of the filing date of the parent application to the extent of the two applications' common subject matter. The C.I.P must be filed while the original parent application is pending for any disclosed material in common with the parent.

continuing applications

There are three types of continuing applications: division, continuation and continuation-in-part

copyright

The legal right granted to an author, editor or publisher of an article, chapter or complete work. Copyright applies to intellectual property in a variety of artistic fields and attempts to be format-neutral.

ISI has a long-standing reputation for copyright compliance and has worked tirelessly to address the concerns of intellectual property holders in the electronic environment. The ISI Document Solution(SM) (IDS) makes sure that all articles provided to customers have appropriate copyright clearance through payment of an appropriate fee to the rights holder.

copyright fee

The fee paid to the holder of the copyright when a reproduction of the article, chapter or complete work is made by or for an end user. The actual dollar amount is set by the individual publisher; typically, it is assessed when clients order individual copies of articles from any document vendor such as the ISI Document Solution (IDS) service provided by ISI.

CPG

Formerly Current Patents Gazette. An ultra-rapid competitive intelligence service covering innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. It offers full coverage of new patents and applications published during the previous seven days, expertly classified, analysed and put into context to provide quick and easy access to those areas of interest to readers.

CPI

1. Chemical Patents Index. Term covering patents classified in Sections A-M. 2. Central Patents Index. Archaic synonym for Chemical Patents Index. This was used before the commencement of EPI and EngPI services in 1974.

CSAN

Chemical SAN i.e. Secondary Accession Number specific to a chemical patent (or family). May also have a separate Non-chemical NSAN.

Current Contents eSearchSM

Current Contents eSearch is a new feature of Current Contents Connect® that extends searching to the full text of Web sites. These Web sites--from Current Web Contents¿--have been evaluated by ISI editors and meet strict selection criteria. Current Contents eSearch employs advanced Web indexing and retrieval technology to locate information on the Web that's relevant to a search, with special coverage in preprint, funding information, and research activity Web sites.

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database

A continuously updated electronic file of related information, usually focused on a particular subject or discipline.

DCN

Derwent Compound Number

DCPF

Derwent Crop Protection File. Abstracts of agricultural papers from journals and patent documents. Ceased production at the end of 2003 - still available online as a closed file, that is it is no longer updated.

DCR

1. Derwent Chemistry Resource. Internal specific compound database which has rationalised the way that Derwent handles chemical structures in all its products. 2. Derwent Chemistry Resource. Structure searchable specific compound database for DWPI on STN.

DCR compound indexing

Indexing associated with the compound in the Derwent Chemistry Resource database e.g. well established activities, compound descriptor terms, substructure terms etc.

DCR Lookup

Alternative name for Compound Manger with subset of functionality, i.e. search and retrieve information from Derwent Chemistry Resource.

DD

The country code for East Germany.

DDR

Derwent Drug Registry. Compound registry of Derwent Drug File - each record is assigned a DDR number. Structure searchable on STN only. Will be superseded by Derwent Chemistry Resource.

DE

The country code for Germany, previously this was specific to West Germany, with DD for East Germany.

Declaratory Judgment

A lawsuit filed to determine where the plaintiff is in doubt as to his legal rights. With respect to patents, this is a lawsuit filed by someone against the patent holder asking the court to declare that the inventors patent is invalid or that the plaintiff is not infringing the patent. The possibility of such a lawsuit is a source of concern for poorly financed patent holders who must be careful lest something they do be seen as accusing others of infringement requiring them to defend against a lawsuit often at a distant location and at great expense.

Deep Indexing

All current Derwent WPI indexing which is more in-depth than Manual Codes, i.e. Chemical Indexing, Enhanced Polymer Indexing and DWPI Markush (now Merged Markush Service).

defensive publication

A publication and disclosure to the public of a pending patent application.

Delphion

1. A Thomson company, now part of Thomson Scientific 2. Delphion Research - database of full-text patent documents

Derpict

CD-ROM version of Derwent Documentation Abstracts Journal.

Derwent abstract

Derwent subject experts review patent specifications and write a concise description of the of the claims and disclosures of an invention, in English.

Derwent Classification Codes

Derwent classifies patents using a system designed for all technologies. This is consistently applied to all patents by subject experts enabling effective and precise searching in a particular area of technology.

Patents are initially divided into 3 main groups: Chemical, Electrical and Electronic, and Mechanical Engineering. Each main group is further divided into sections and then each section into classes.

Derwent CPI

Derwent Chemical Patents Index.

Derwent sections

Derwent Patent Indicators categorizes patents by Derwent Section.

Derwent title

In some cases the title of patent specifications is intentionally uninformative since the applicant does not wish anyone to know the details of the filing before it has been examined. Derwent writes a descriptive title in 2 parts: 1) the invention and its application, and 2) a description of its novelty - its advantages and what makes it new.

Derwent also computer generates a list of standardised terms - called Title Terms - which will also be searchable in Derwent Innovations Index as part of the Topic Search. These are additionally assigned words that are the standard forms of title words (cancer for cancerous, etc.).

Derwent WPI

Derwent World Patents Index®. The main Derwent bibliographic patents database. Available online from STN, Questel.Orbit, Dialog, and as various printed products. Updated weekly.

Derwent WPIM

Derwent World Patents Index Markush. Database of Markush and specific compound structures indexed in DWPI. Structure searchable on Questel.Orbit only. Provided as an integral part of the Merged Markush Service (MMS). Includes all specific structures available within DCR on STN.

descriptor

A controlled term for the CAB Thesaurus used to index records in the CAB Abstracts database.

design Patent

A type of patent covering the shape characteristics of an object.

designated states

States in which patent applicants have requested their invention be covered by means of a European or Patent Cooperation Treaty application are given in the full record in Derwent Innovations Index. This data element will not appear without an European Patent Convention or World Intellectual Property Organization patent.

DGENE

STN online implementation of Derwent GENESEQ database.

Dialog

Online service (host) providing customer access to Derwent databases. Part of the Thomson Corporation.

DialogLink

Dialog communications software designed for accessing all online hosts, but especially Dialog.

DII

Derwent Innovations Index. DWPI and DPCI merged into a unified product, on the ISI "Web of Science" platform.

DIMDI

Online service (host) providing access to Derwent databases (excluding DWPI). Mainly used by the German academic markets.

DJSM

Derwent Journal of Synthetic Methods. Monthly journal of novel chemical reactions from patent and journal sources. Available on STN and as printed product.

DIPF

Derwent International Patent Family File. A version of DWPI provided on the Westlaw platform.

division (see continuing applications)

If the patent office decides that an application covers too large an area to be considered as a single patent, then the application is split into one or more divisional applications. A divisional application has the same specification as the "parent" but claims a different invention.

disclosure

The first public disclosure of details of an invention. This may be:

·          deliberately revealed outside the patent system to make the invention unpatentable, or

·          what is described in a patent application.

disposal

In some countries, such as the USA, this refers to where an application has been resolved by being withdrawn, rejected or granted. It can also have the connotation of being rejected only.

Doctrine of Equivalents

A doctrine which says that even if a patent claim does not literally read on a possibly infringing device, it can be read more broadly providing it does not read on the prior art. It is designed to allow the inventor to assert a patent where the differences between the inventor's and an infringer's product are not substantial.

Document compound indexing

Indexing of the compound as used in the current document e.g. roles, all claimed activities of a compound. This may be a superset of the Derwent Chemistry Resource indexing.

document delivery service

The provision of the full text copy of a specific article, report or book chapter to an end user.

Document Indexing

All forms of indexing applied to the document as a whole e.g. formulation.

Documentation Abstract

Detailed summary of patent contents. Includes all the fields of the abstract & manual codes. Available for chemical patents (A - M) in print and CD-ROM product. The combination of the Alert, Technology Focus and Abex abstracts online (STN terminology) forms the technical content of the Documentation abstract but without all the formulae. See also DAJ.

DOLPHIN

The Database Of All Pharmaceutical Inventions

DPCI

Derwent Patent Citations Index. Available on Dialog and STN, and as an integrated part of the Derwent Innovations Index (DII). See DII.

DR

Discovery Phase from IDdb. Compounds from their first synthesis through in vitro and in vivo toxicology and pharmacology testing.

DRN

Derwent Registry Number. Set of approx. 2000 structure identifiers used in Derwent WPI to reference specific compounds. Also known as RN.Incorporated into Derwent Chemistry Resource.

drawing

One or more specially-prepared figures filed as a part of a patent application to explain and describe the invention. Drawings (or illustrations, where appropriate) are more commonly found with inventions for mechanical or electrical devices. As a rule, chemical patents will include chemical formulae in the description of the invention and/or in the examples.

DRS

Derwent Reaction Service. Title to cover all reaction products such as Derwent JSM.

DTD

Document Type Definition. Description of the underlying data structure used in SGML/XML to describe a document. The structure of a document is informally defined as the set of elements in the document and the relationship between those elements.

duty of disclosure

This is a requirement imposed on all persons involved with the patenting process to disclosure information (patents, articles, laboratory data etc.) to the patent examiner that may affect the granting of a patent.

DVDF

Derwent Veterinary Drug File. Abstracts of veterinary drug papers from journals only. Production ceased at the end of 2002. Still available online as a closed file, that is it is no longer updated.

DWDA

Derwent World Drug Alerts.

DWDI

Derwent World Drug Index. Structure searchable database of drugs or active compounds. Available quarterly as in-house database for various software.

DWPI

1. Derwent World Patents Index. The main Derwent bibliographic patents database. Available on STN, Dialog, Questel.Orbit, ISI, Delphion and Westlaw platforms. See also DIPF and DII. 2. DWPI file name on Questel.Orbit (WPIL and WPAT are synonyms).

DWPIM

Derwent World Patents Index Markush. Database of Markush and specific compound structures indexed in DWPI. Structure searchable on Questel.Orbit only. Provided as an integral part of the Merged Markush Service (MMS). See MMS. Includes all specific structures available within DCR on STN. See DCR.

DWPIX

Derwent World Patents Index Extension. The version of DWPI which includes the Extension Abstract field. Only available to a select few (major) subscribers. See Extension Abstract.

DWPX

Derwent World Patents Index Extension (DWPIX) on Questel.Orbit. See DWPIX.

DWW

Drug Watch Weekly.

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edition

The version of a finished work at a given date of publication. The first time a book is published is considered to be its first edition. If revised at a later date, the publication would then be in a second edition. The latest edition is the most current but older editions may contain useful information deleted in subsequent versions.

Edition may also be used to indicate a topical selection or coverage. In the ISI product, Current Contents, there are seven editions:

Life Sciences
Physical, Chemical, & Earth Sciences
Agriculture, Biology & Environmental Sciences
Arts & Humanities
Clinical Medicine
Engineering, Computing & Technology
Social & Behavioral Sciences

editor

Individual who prepares or supervises the preparation of another's work for publication. The process may involve several steps including selection and arrangement of material. Some collected works (and most periodicals) have more than one editor.

EngPI

Engineering Patents Index.

EPI

Electrical Patents Index

EPIDOS

Commercial wing of the European Patent Office

EPO

European Patent Office

equivalent

A patent entering the Derwent production system which relates to the same invention and shares the same priority application as a patent from a different issuing authority already held in Derwent World Patents Index (see also non-convention equivalent).

ESPACE

European Patent Office series of CD-ROM products

Espacenet

EPO web site for searching, displaying and downloading patent documents. Also Esp@cenet.

European Patent Convention (EPC)

Nineteen European countries are parties to the European Patent Convention. A patent application filed under this convention will, when granted, usually automatically be effective in each of the countries designated by the applicant.

examiner

A patent office official who is appointed to determine the patentability of applications.

examples

§         A worked description of one aspect (embodiment) of theinvention within the patent application.

§         Possible alternative embodiments of the invention within the patent application, with little detail provided.

expiry date

The date when a patent has run its full term in a country and is no longer protected there (see also Lapse, Withdrawn).

Extension Abstract

The DWPI abstract field which consists of Administration, Wider Disclosure, Specific Substances, Example and Definitions headings. Only available to a select few (major) subscribers. See DWPIX.

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false drop

An irrelevant search result. Also may be referred to as "false hit".

field of search

To determine novelty each patent examiner searches a collection of patents classified in the technology of the application (subject area of the application). The result of this search is published on the patent publication.

File 331

Derwent World Patents Index First View on Dialog

File 342

Derwent Patent Citations Index on Dialog

File 350

Derwent World Patents Index Extension (DWPIX) on Dialog. See DWPIX.

File 351

DWPI on Dialog (outside Japan).

File 352

DWPI on Dialog (in Japan).

File 357

Derwent Biotechnology Abstracts on Dialog

File 375

Derwent Drug Registry on Dialog

File 376

Derwent Drug File 1964-1982 on Dialog

File 377

Derwent Drug File 1983-present on Dialog

File 670

Derwent LitAlert on Dialog

File 911

Derwent Drug Registry on Dialog (Subscriber file)

File 912

Derwent Drug File 1964-1982 on Dialog (Subscriber file)

File 913

Derwent Drug File 1983-present on Dialog (Subscriber file)

filing date

The date when the application reaches the patent office in complete form.

first to file

The applicant who is the first to file an application for an invention will be awarded the patent over all others. This law is becoming increasingly the standard for countries adhering to Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) guidelines.

first to invent

In some countries, the applicant who is the first to invent will be awarded the patent over all others.

FIZ

Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe. Often shortened to FIZ. See STN.

forfeited application

An application on which the issue or maintenance fee has not been paid within the designated period.

Frag codes

See Fragmentation codes

Fragmentation codes

BCE Chemical Fragmentation Codes. Also known as Chemical Indexing or Frag Codes. This is a system which uses codes to designate presence or absence of features present in indexed compounds. Most codes relate to parts of the chemical structure; some are non-structural, for activity, role and/or application of compound in the patent. Currently applied to patents in Derwent sections BCE. Dates back to the very beginning of DWPI (1963).

frequency

Interval at which issues of a periodical or serial are published. Most publishers indicate the frequency of a journal to subscribers so that the subscriber can know in advance how often to expect delivery of an issue.

The publisher's demonstrated ability to maintain frequency is one of the criteria for inclusion of a journal in the ISI databases. For a more complete explanation of these criteria, please see essay: The ISI Database: The Journal Selection Process

front matter

Material appearing at the beginning (or front) of a publication before the main body of text. Front matter may contain identification information relating to the publisher and /or the publication itself, introductory explanations relating to the scope of the work as well as the table of contents for the work.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol used for sending files from on computer server to another

full record

The complete entry for an item within a database. Publishers of databases have varying standards for what information must be included in a full record.

When the term full record is used within the documentation for an ISI electronic product, it means that the record includes all of the following: article title, source publication, ISSN, volume, issue, publication date, page range and count, publisher, publisher's address, publisher's e-mail address, complete list of authors, authors' addresses, author's e-mail address, reprint address, document type, language, author-provided keyword list, additional keyword list (KeyWords Plus®), and ISI document delivery number. Where provided by the publisher, ISI indexes all English-language abstracts in their entirety. These will also be included in a full record. For the Web of Science, a full record will also include all listed authors on a paper and this field within the record is fully searchable.

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G0

Term used to describe the core part of a Markush structure.

Generic

1. Generic Term - see definition 2. term for a drug which is out of patent and able to be manufactured/sold by anybody. 3. Non-preferred and misleading term for Multiple specific compound 4. Non-preferred term for a Markush structure

Generic DARC

Online structure search system for Questel. For databases of specific structures only but allows input of generic queries. CAS registry is the only database implemented on Questel with G-DARC.

Generic Term

An entity which encompasses a class of chemical fragments distinguished by some common chemical feature(s), e.g. Alkyl. They can be quite verbose e.g. electron withdrawing group.

GETSIM run package

STN software for analysing protein or nucleic acid sequence similarity (homology) within the DGENE database. Sequences of up to 500 characters may be searched.

glossary

A list of related terms or vocabulary words, usually with their definitions. A glossary is usually provided for the convenience of the reader or end user who may not be familiar with a specialized vocabulary.

GMPI

General & Mechanical Patents Index - replaced by EngPi/Engineering

GPE

Guide to Patent Expiries.

GPS

Global Patent Sources.

grant

A temporary right given by a patent office for a specified period, to prevent anyone else from using the technology defined in the claims of a patent.

Graphics Indexing

General term for indexing of chemical structures, used variously within Derwent to refer to Markush indexing for MMS and the DDR specific compound database.

grey literature

Publications produced by government, academia, or business and industry, in print and/or electronic forms, that are not published commercially. These publications may include technical reports, standards and specifications, translations, or other types of documentation. It is generally considered difficult to access this material because of inconsistent methods of publication and dissemination.

GTD

Gene Therapy Database. Abstracts from Patents and Literature papers. Available on CD-ROM.

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Higher Term

A keyword (or code) that is used to describe another keyword (or code) more generally (see Keyword).

highly cited patent

Derwent Patent Indicators specifically indetifies those patents that are frequently cited. Generally, a highly cited patent is in the top percentile of the rankings by times cited. Only a relatively small number of patents received this amount of attention. In many instances, a highly cited patent may contain a significant advancement. These citation links can reveal whether different sectors of technology are building upon each other or progressing rapidly.

In Derwent Patent Indicators, the time period for highly cited patents is the last 10 years. That is, the product goes back 10 years to retrieve highly cited patents.

hot patent

Derwent Patent Indicators specifically identifies those patents that are frequently cited within a short period. Generally, a hot patent receives attention shortly after it's publication data and may contain a new advancement.

In Derwent Patent Indicators, hot patents are identified based on the most recent quarterly citation count of patent families with PAN years going back four years. That is, the product goes back three years, plus a partial fourth year, to retrieve hot patents.

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IDdb

The Investigational Drugs database. A daily-updated, industry-wide competitor intelligence and R&D monitoring service. The IDdb provides validated, integrated and evaluated information on all aspects of drug development, from first patent application to launch or discontinuation. Importantly, all IDdb records are continuously updated as new information is received.

IDS

The ISI Document Solution(SM)

Imagination

Questel.Orbit communications software designed for accessing all online hosts, but especially Questel.Orbit.

immediacy index

The average number of times that an article published in a specific year within a specific journal is cited over the course of that same year.

This calculation, published in the Journal Citation Reports, is one developed by ISI as an indicator of the speed with which citations to a specific journal appear in the published literature. Such information is useful in determining which journals are publishing in emerging areas of research

impact factor

The number of current citations to articles published in a specific journal in a two year period divided by the total number of articles published in the same journal in the corresponding two year period.

ISI stresses that a journal's impact factor is a meaningful indicator only when considered in the context of similar journals covering a single field of investigation or subject discipline. For more information on this, please refer to the essays: The Impact Factor and Using the Impact Factor

implicit citations

Implicit citations are of three sorts, illustrations, music examples and general implicit citations.

Illustrations are defined as full representations of a work of art or craft that appear in journal articles especially (but not limited to) those in art and architecture journals. ISI inserts a reference to the artist and the work and marks it as an illustration.

Music examples are bars of musical notation reproduced in a journal article, usually to demonstrate some musical concept; these are generally found in musicology or music pedagogy journals. When these examples appear, ISI references the composer and the work of music and marks it as a music example.

General implicit citations are those that ISI creates based on an implied reference in the title or text of an article; this occurs if, for example, the author assumes a shared knowledge on the part of the reader and does not formally cite a work. In this case, ISI makes a reference to the author and work and marks it as an implicit citation.

Implicit citations are an enhancement found in the Arts & Humanities Citation Index®.

index

Alphabetized list of names, places, and topics treated in a printed work which gives the page number(s) on which each topic is discussed. Usually located at the end of a book, or in the last volume of a multi-volume work.

information management tools

Software that enables the end-user to arrange and store bibliographic references on a customized basis in an electronic format.

ISI offers three bibliographic software packages: Reference Manager®, EndNote® and Pro-Cite®.

infringe

To make, use or sell the patented item or process within the country covered by the patent, without permission or licence from the patentee.

Infringement

1. Encroach or trespass on the rights of others, usually involving intellectual property. 2. To make, use or sell the patented item or process within the country covered by the patent without permission or license from the patentee. A device infringes on a patent if the claims of a valid patent read on that device.

Inheritance

The process which allows equivalent records to inherit details from their basic counterpart in the patent family.

INPADOC

Comprehensive patent family and legal status database provided by the European Patent Office. Customers often use this database in combination with DWPI.

INPI

Institut National de la Propriete Industrielle. The French Patent Office. INPI are partners with Derwent providing the MMS database on Questel.Orbit. See MMS.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property refers to creations — including inventions, artistic works, names and designs — that are legally protected. Intellectual property includes patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets.

Interference

A procedure declared by the patent office when it appears that two or more people made the same invention at roughly the same time. It is an expensive, lengthy court-like proceeding designed to determine who was the first true inventor. About 0.1% of patents are involved in interference proceedings.

International Patent Classification

This system of classifying patents according to technology groups has evolved under the auspices of several countries and the WIPO. The system is under continual revision to take into account new technologies. It is a hierarchical system using letters and codes. There are eight sections that are broken down into classes and subclasses.

Documents are classified according to two principles: 1) when they relate to similar solutions to the same technical problem (classification by function), and 2) grouped together according to the industrial art in which the problem arises (classification by application).

inventor

Inventor names are recorded for all patents. These appear in the standard last name-initial(s) format.

IPC

International Patent Classification. An internationally recognised classification system assigned by patent examiners.

ISBN

International Standard Book Number. Unique ten-digit publisher's I.D. number for a specific edition of a book. Usually printed on the reverse side of the title page, and on the back of the dust jacket, or cover of a book published in softcover.

ISI

Institute for Scientific Information. A Thomson business, now part of Thomson Scientific

ISIS

Commercial chemical software product family from MDL. Includes ISIS/Draw for drawing chemical structures, ISIS/Base for local database and front-end to ISIS/Host, ISIS/Host for client/server access to structure searchable databases. Currently used by Derwent for production of DDR and Derwent WDA. Will act as structure searchable database for specific compounds in Derwent Chemistry Resource.

ISSN

International Standard Serial Number. Unique eight-digit number which identifies a specific serial title.

issue

All the copies of a specific publication (usually a serial or periodical) with an assigned number and/or date, such as Issue #1, Spring 2002. Issues are published in consecutive order according to this number or date for the sake of chronological organization of information.

ITP

Industry & Technology Patents Profile

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JAPIO

Commercial wing of the Japanese Patent Office

journal

A serial or periodical usually devoted to a specific field or subset of scholarly knowledge. A few scholarly journals (such as Science or Nature) are multidisciplinary in their approach to a broad range of inter-related fields of investigation. An article appearing in a scholarly journal is composed of different elements including an author abstract and a bibliography of works cited or referenced in the article.

JSM

Derwent Journal of Synthetic Methods

JST

Japan Science and Technology Corporation. See STN.

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keywords

Terms supplied by the author(s) as part of the paper which may act as descriptive terms for inclusion in a search strategy that is intended to retrieve an article. Keywords are frequently included in the header information of a published journal article. These keywords are contained in the ISI record for each article and are searchable. In addition, ISI generates KeyWords Plus for many articles.

NOTE: A keyword search does not take into account the meaning of terms used for searching. If a keyword has more than one meaning, irrelevant records ("false drops") may be retrieved.

KeyWords Plus®

KeyWords Plus are words or phrases that frequently appear in the titles of an article's references, but do not appear in the title of the article itself. KeyWords Plus may be present for articles that have no author keywords, and may include important terms not listed among the author keywords.

kinds

The letter, often with a further number, indicating the level of publication of a patent. For example DE-A1 is the German Offenlegungsschrift (application laid open for public inspection) while a DE-C1 is the German Patentschrift (first publication of the granted patent).

Kokai

An unexamined Japanese patent application.

Kokoku

An examined and allowed Japanese patent application.

KS

Keyterm Serial Numbers or Key Serials. A coding system for polymers in use 1978-1994.

KWI

Keyword indexing.

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lapse

The date when a patent is no longer valid in a country or system due to failure to pay renewal (maintenance) fees. Often the patent can be reinstated within a limited period.

license


A transfer of patent rights that does not amount to an assignment. A license, which can be exclusive or non-exclusive, does not give the licensee the legal title to the patent.

LitAlert

A unique database of value-added U.S. litigation affecting intellectual property produced by Thomson Derwent

LNI

Launched New Indication Phase from IDdb. A previously-launched drug which is now in development for a significantly different indication.

LX

Launched Extensively Phase from IDdb. Launched in three of the seven major pharmaceutical markets (namely the USA, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Spain), one of which must be the USA.

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MACCS

Terminal based specific compound database system from MDL, being superseded by ISIS.

Major Concepts

Broad subject areas covered by the source document.

Manual codes

System of codes used to index patents in Derwent WPI.

Markush

A term used to describe the series of compounds covered by a patent claim, where the compound is defined as a basic structure with a variable list of possible substituents (e.g. where R=H, alkyl, aryl etc.).

Markush DARC

Online system used by Questel.Orbit to store and search for Markush structures in MMS. See MMS.

Markush TOPFRAG

Derwent-supplied user aid software which generates search strategies from drawn chemical structures for both DWPI Chemical Indexing and MMS. See TOPFRAG.

MAT

Machine Assisted Translations.

Messenger

Online search system used by STN. Allows searching of specific and Markush structures. Allows limited (no homology) searching in DGENE. Term also used for STN Markush search system for convenience.

metadata

Metadata is structured data about data. Metadata helps describe and identify a document so that it can be retrieved. For example, it can be used to help locate print documents such as library books, or in a more complicated form, to identify an electronic document on a Web site.

MMS

Merged Markush Service. Markush and specific compound structure file formed by the merging of DWPIM and INPI’s Markush Pharmsearch (MPHARM) databases in June 1998. Only available on Questel.Orbit. See DWPIM.

monograph

A self-contained publication on a specific topic, usually a book or treatise.

monthly

Any publication that has a frequency of publication of 12 times per year corresponding to the 12 months of the year.

MTF

Markush TOPFRAG

Multiple Specific

A term to describe the representation of multiple specific compounds in the form of a core fragment with tabular definition of R groups.

Multiple Specifics Tool (MST)

A new software tool developed as part of the Analyst Desktop for simplifying input of multiple similar specific compounds for the Derwent Chemistry Resource specific compound database. See Multiple Specific above.

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NDR

No Development Reported Phase from IDdb. No evidence of continuing development has been seen for at least two years, i.e. there have been no journal publications, no mention in company annual reports, press releases, etc.

non-convention equivalents

An application filed in a second, or subsequent country which does not claim a priority application in another country. Usually a result of filing the application after the 12 month Convention period, but may be within that period by choice of the applicant.

novel

A patent must be new or original. That is, the invention must never have been made in public in any way, anywhere, before the date on which the application for a patent is filed.

novelty

The concept that the claims must be totally new. The invention must never have been made public in any way, anywhere, before the date on which the application for a patent is filed.

NSAN

Non-chemical secondary accession number; i.e. specific to a non-chemical patent. Abstract may also have a separate CSAN.

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OAL

Open Access Licence allowing use of online databases for a set fee.

obviousness

The concept that the claims defining an invention in a patent application must involve an inventive step if, when compared with what is already known (i.e. prior art), it would not be obvious to someone skilled in the art.

Offenlegungsschrift

An published unexamined German patent document (see Auslegeschrift).

OPAC

An Online Public Access Catalog searchable catalog of a library's collection, available on the Internet and accessible to the public.

open URL

The standard of data transport that allows the transfer of metadata from an information resource to a server that supports context-sensitive linking.
See also: SFX, Content-sensitive linking, metadata

opposition

The time period allowed for an interested party to post oppositions to the grant of a patent. For example, this may be up to nine months from the date of grant of a European patent.

optimistic links

Links to online documents that are generated at the time they are selected by a user. The ISI RoboLinks system uses an algorithm to find the requested document and construct a final URL to display it. This system helps to eliminate the problems caused by broken or changing URLs.
See also: RoboLinks

Orbit

Online service (host) which used to provide customer access to Derwent databases. Closed in November 1999. Customers now use the much enhanced Questel.Orbit platform.

Ovid

Host for Derwent Drug File via the Ovid software platform (intranet/stand-alone system or via Ovid Online on the Internet).

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P & Q

Sections P and Q of the Derwent Classification system. Obsolete term for EngPI.

PAN

Primary Accession Number. Derwent assigned number uniquely identifying each patent of family of related patents in Derwent WPI. See also SAN.

PAN year

A PAN year is the year when items are entered in the Derwent database and a new family is created. The PAN year is not necessarily the publication date (or year) of the patent, but it is usually close to it.

Paris Convention

The Paris Convention was established March 20 1883, effective July 7 1884, and amended June 2 1934 and July 14 1967. Signatories to the Paris Convention are allowed one year from first filing their patent application (usually in their own country) in which to make further applications in member countries and claim the original priority date.

patent

A patent is a documentthat defines the right by law for inventors and assignees to make use of and exploit their inventions for a limited period of time.

Definitions vary from country to country as to what comprises a patentable invention. The granting of a patent in any particular country gives the owner of the patent with the legal authority to exclude others from making, using, or selling the claimed invention in that country without their consent, for a fixed period of time.

This authority does not extend to any other country. A patent needs to be obtained in each country where protection is sought.

Patents are a form of intellectual property protection. They should not be confused with trademarks, servicemarks, and copyrighted material, which are other forms of protection of intellectual property.

Patent Application

A document submitted by an inventor to request he be issued a patent. It consists of the elements of a patent but will likely be modified during patent prosecution.

patentability

The ability of an invention to satisfy the legal requirements for obtaining a patent, including novelty. In some countries certain types of inventions, e.g. computer software and plants, may be unpatentable.

patent assignee

The individual(s) or corporate body to whom all of limited rights of the patent are legally transferred.

The assignee is usually the company that owns the rights to the patented invention. These can be individuals, but normally they are companies. Derwent assigns a standard 4-digit code to patent producing companies. By using the 4-digit code one can retrieve the worldwide holdings of a company as well as its subsidiaries and related companies. They link companies with different names through these codes.

patent assignee code

To standardize company names, Derwent assigns a unique four-letter code to approximately 21,000 companies worldwide. Use of these codes retrieves subsidiaries and related holdings of the company. Other companies and individual patent assignees are given a non-standard four-letter code, which is not unique. These appear as:

·         ABCD - Nonstandard,

·         ABCD - Soviet Institute, or

·         ABCD - Individual.

Patentee names were limited to a maximum of four with up to 40 characters with no restriction on the total number of names. The name may be shortened or abbreviated to fit the restriction, for example: INT for International.

Patent Co-operation Treaty (P.C.T.)

The P.C.T. was signed in Washington D.C. on June 19 1970 and entered into force January 24 1978. It was amended with effective dates of May 3 1984 and January 1 1985. There are currently 96 signatories to this treaty. Contracting states may file an international application designating member states. If an applicant wants to press for grant in any of their designated states the patent application is m oved to the national phase(s) but may carry the P.C.T. priority filing date.

patent family

A patent family is a set of individual patents granted by various countries. Think of a parent family as all the equivalent patent applications corresponding to a single invention, covering different geographical regions.

As applications are made for patents of an invention in countries around the world, Derwent links these patents together in a patent family structure. Derwent then tracks the development of the patents, indexing all updates received from the various international patent authorities.

patent number

A patent number is a unique identifier of a patent (for example, EP178925 and US4796266 are valid patent numbers).

Patent numbers are assigned to each patent document by the patent-issuing authority. Derwent inputs the two-character WIPO country code of the publishing country, followed by the serail number (up to 10 characters), and a status code indicating the document type or publication stage.

Patentschrift

A granted German patent application.

patent specification

A description of the invention, including a description of the monopoly claimed. This may be published several times, first as the applicant wrote it, then after a patent examiner has amended it, and then finally after any objections from third parties have been taken into account.

patent status codes

These are sometimes referred to as Kind Codes. For most patent issuing authorities more than one version of the patent specification is issued. As these sequential documents sometimes keep the same serial number, they are assigned a patent kind code or status code. These codes are a combination of the patent status and the sequence of publication - status being examined or unexamined, sequence meaning the first or second publication within the status.

patent-issuing authority

Any country or organization with the authority and the power to issue patents.

patent-to-patent citation

Patent-to-patent citations reveal whether different sectors of technology are building upon each other. They also provide an indicator of the performance of a particular patent assignee in both public and private sectors. A synthesis of patent-to-patent citation information can lead to indicators of technological development.

PDF

Portable Document Format

peer review

The process by which an article is evaluated for acceptance or rejection for publication in a scholarly journal. Only a scientist's peers in a particular field of study are considered to be valid critics of the worthiness of the manuscript for publication.

pending

The period in which the patent office has not yet decided whether to reject or to grant a patent application, and it has not yet been withdrawn.

preliminary examination

The initial study of an application by an official in the patent office to check that the specification is properly arranged and for preparing search reports.

Pestdoc

See Derwent CPF

PIUG

Patent Information Users Group Inc.

Plasdoc Coding

Code based DWPI indexing system for polymers discontinued in 1993. Comprises Section A Multipunch (AM) Codes, Keyterm Serial Numbers (KS) and Plasdoc Registry Numbers (RN). Still widely used by subscribers for backfile searching. See Polymer Indexing.

Polymer Indexing

System of hierarchical codes used to index polymers and associated information from patents in Derwent WPI. Enhanced Polymer Indexing introduced in 1993 to replace Plasdoc Coding.

PR

Pre-registration Phase from IDdb. Drug trial data has been submitted to the regulatory authority for a particular country (eg the FDA in the United States or the CPMP in Europe), and the drug is awaiting approval for marketing.

Primary Accession Number (PAN)

A unique identification number assigned by Derwent to the first patent in each patent family, and therefore to the database record created for that family. The format of each number is a four-digit year, followed by a hyphen and a six-digit accession number in YYYY-NNNNNN format (for example, 1999-468964).

prior art

Previously used or published technology that may be referred to in a patent application or an examination report.

During the initial stages of development of a new technology a company will perform extensive searches of patent and non-patent databases to find out everything that has been previously published which pertains to the technology or "art". This is referred to as prior art searching. This is needed to determine the novelty of the invention and to be certain that the invention does not infringe upon the rights of another inventor.

priority application

Under the right of the priority provision of the Paris Convention an application may be filed in one or more contracting states or countries within 12 months of the first application. In this case the original application number becomes the priority application date.

priority date

The initial date of filing of a patent application, normally in the applicant's domestic patent office. This date is used to help determine the novelty of an invention.

Publication

Documents, including patents of most countries that are printed (published) in and are actually or presumptively available to the public.

publication year - Derwent

The patent publication year is the date on which the patent document is made available to the public. The format is NN MMM YYYY (for example, 22 Jun 1999).

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quarterly

Any publication that has a frequency of publication of four times per year, generally conforming to the four seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter) of the year.

Questel

Shorthand for the Questel.Orbit online service (host) providing customer access to Derwent databases. See also Orbit.

Questel.Orbit

Questel.Orbit online service (host) providing customer access to Derwent databases. See also Orbit.

R

Registered Phase from IDdb. The drug has been approved for marketing. There is sometimes a delay between registration and launch, often because of difficulties in scaling-up the manufacturing process. In rare cases a drug may be approved but not marketed.

Read On

A claim reads on something, if every element of that claim is present in that which it reads on. If a claim reads on prior art, then the claim is invalid. A claim must read on an accused device for infringement to occur.

record

A database unit that represents a source document. A record is made up of fields such as Title, Author, and Source.

references per family

The average number of prior patents and scientific articles cited for a patent family. Consider it as a measure of the dependence of the invention on the prior art.

Registrar

Member of the registration group. Responsible for maintaining the integrity of the Derwent Chemistry Resource compound database using structure search capabilities. Processes compounds submitted by Analysts.

reinstatement

Restoring a patent to protection after it has apparently lapsed by error or been revoked.

rejection

When a patent application is refused by a patent office

Related Records ®

An exclusive value-added ISI feature of the electronic editions of ISI citation indexes. Related Records enhances the power of cited reference searching by linking and displaying all the articles within each index that have cited references in common.

When you find one record of interest, you can easily find additional articles that are related to your subject, items not easily accessible with traditional search techniques.

renewal fees

Payments that must be made by the applicant to the patent office in order to keep the patent in force and prevent it from lapsing. In the USA, these are termed maintenance fees.

Request-A-Print® (also RAP)

A service provided by ISI that permits a researcher to prepare and send requests for article reprints. The end user can purchase either cards or micrcomputer forms. By saving search results to a rap list, the process is automated saving the user time and effort in obtaining these reprints.

Review Article

An article, published in a journal or annual, that reviews the current body of scholarly research on a particular subject.

Revocation

Termination of the protection given to a patent on one or more grounds, e.g. lack of novelty.

RIN

Ring Index Number. System of DWPI indexing which indicates the presence of particular rings in a chemical structure. Only assigned to ring systems which do not have a precise chemical fragmentation code.

RN

1. Derwent Registry Number. Set of approximately 2000 compound numbers used in DWPI to reference specific compounds since 1981. Also known as DRN. For indexing purposes these have been superseded by DCR numbers. Still used by customers for backfile searching. 2. CAS Registry Number.

RoboLinks

The ISI technology for ensuring no "dead" links from the ISI Web of KnowledgeSM platform to publishers' full-text. RoboLinks is a dynamic system that uses article-identifying metadata to locate and link to a document.
See also: Optimistic links

Role

An qualifier that can be optionally assigned to a keyword, or compound number, to describe its context.

ROSDAL

String format from Beilstein used for chemical structures. Available on Dialog.

RT

Research Tool Phase from IDdb. A compound that is not in active development, but is commonly used in research as a standard.

RTM

Registered Trade Mark.

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S

Suspended Phase from IDdb. Suspended from active development for a time. This may be for financial reasons, strategic reasons, or because of unexpected clinical events. A suspended drug may either go back into development, once problems are rectified, or it may be dropped from the pipeline entirely.

S4

Structure search software owned by Beilstein. Used on Dialog and on CD-ROM products.

SAN

Secondary Accession Number. Number assigned by Derwent to a specific issue of an abstract when updating microform products. See NSAN and CSAN.

SCA

Single Copy Abstracts.

scientometrics

The quantitative study of the disciplines of science based on published literature and communications. This could include identifying emerging areas of scientific research, examining the development of research over time, or geographic and organizational distributions of research.
See also: Bibliometrics

SCN

Specific Compound Number. DWPI compound numbering scheme used for closed set of approximately 20000 specific compounds since 1987. The numbering system is additionally used for DCR substance records as they appear within MMS. For indexing purposes, SCNs have been superseded by DCR numbers. Still used by customers for backfile searching.

SDdb

The SDdb is the Strategic Drugs database. This is a relatively new online product which focuses on the activities of drugs that generate or have the potential to generate over >$100 million. The product is aimed at business strategists, providing analysis and forecast of market trends as well as information on therapeutic leaders.

SDfile

Extension of MOLfile format which stores connection table plus associated text data for multiple compounds.

SDI

Selective Dissemination of Information. The term is used to refer to searches which are run automatically, triggered by updates to a database, to provide customers with current awareness information. Also known as Alerts.

Search Report

A list of published items (both patent and non-patent literature), issued by the patent examiners checking the novelty of the patent application, which are relevant to the subject of the invention.

Sections (A,B,C etc.)

General classification of patents applied by Derwent based on broad subject matter. A-M are chemical/biological, P & Q are mechanical and S-X electrical/electronic.

serial

Serials are publications issued in numbered order according to date of publication. A serial is expected to continue indefinitely. Examples of serials are journals, memoirs, proceedings, yearbooks, directories, books series, etc. and may be identified through their ISSNs.

SFX

Server software, developed by ExLibris, that makes context-sensitive linking possible. SFX allows users to seamlessly link between electronic resources within a library's digital collection.
See also: context-sensitive linking, OpenURL.

SLA

1. Service Level Agreement. 2. Special Libraries Association.

Small Entity

The patent statutes distinguish two type of applicants, small entities and large entities for the determination of fees. Small entities often pay about half of what a large entity would for the same service. A small entity includes companies with less than 500 employees and non-profit and academic institutions. Often the term is used informally to distinguish the smaller, newer and more entrepreneurial inventor entities, from the older, larger established ones.

SMF

Structured Molecular Formula. Proposed new indexing system (primarily for inorganic and other difficult compounds) based on molecular formula of fragments.

SMILES

String format for describing a chemical structure. Basic format is non-proprietary, but is implemented differently by various software vendors. ‘Unique SMILES’, a canonical form of SMILES string will be included in Derwent Chemistry Resource database to allow basic structure matching.

source article

Original material (an article, chapter, or other complete work) published and/or referenced in a journal, book, or other complete work. ISI indexes all significant source items in a journal which may include editorials, letters, reports, correction notes, reviews, etc. as well as primary articles. Any single record appearing in an ISI database will identify the source item.

source document

The original, complete article or patent represented by a record.

Specific compound

Usually a fully defined structure. In some cases the structure may not be known, but it is used to refer to a single substance as opposed to a Markush structure.

specification

That part of the patent which describes the invention in sufficient detail so that someone knowledgeable in the art could practice it. It is the main part of the patent. The term does not imply that the invention is necessarily new or was ever protected. This includes the description, drawings and claims of an invention prepared to support a patent application.

status

The legal standing of a patent or patent application, i.e. whether it is pending, lapsed or still protected etc.

STN

The Scientific and Technical Information Network. Online host providing customer access to Derwent databases. STN is a joint venture between CAS, JST and FIZ. Derwent databases are hosted by FIZ.

STN Express

STN communications software designed for accessing all online hosts, but especially STN. Includes modules for searching and displaying chemical structures in both CAS and Derwent databases.

stopword

In a word (or keyword) search, short words which occur very frequently may be excluded. Each electronic database has its own list of stopwords.

Examples: a, an, for, of, on, the, to, with

Subscriber

A Derwent subscription service customer.

substantive examination

The full examination of a patent application substance or content by a patent office examiner to determine whether a patent should be granted.

Substructure keyword

Indexing term indicating presence of particular structural feature in a given structure. Systems exist for Derwent Drug File, and a new system is proposed for Derwent Chemistry Resource. Substructure terms will be generated by a (yet to be written) program from the molfile.

subtitle

Portion of a work's title following the semicolon or colon.

For example, in the title Appraising Personality: An Introduction, the words An Introduction constitute the subtitle.

Superatom

1. A type of node in a chemical drawing which denotes a generic term. Structure handling systems usually have a fixed set of these, including at least one "catch all" superatom for everything not handled more specifically by one of the others. Also referred to by CAS as ‘generic node’. 2. Non-preferred term for shorthand method of referring to/inputting a functional group in structure drawing programs. Superseded by ‘Residue’ in ISIS/Draw.

super taxa

High-level taxonomic terms for organisms, including microorganisms. Super Taxa are also known as Biosystematic Headings.

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table of contents

List of chapters or topics covered (with page numbers) in the front matter of a book or journal, following the title page.

For Current Contents, the ISI current awareness database, ISI scans and images each source publication and reconstructs the table of contents from the various records that it has processed from that particular issue or volume. This step is added to the process because the tables of contents from most source publications will not identify all of the document types that ISI deems significant within the publication.

ISI also provides bibliographic information as well as tables of contents for recently released book titles. Current Book Contents® focuses on various disciplines within the life sciences.

taxa notes

Common names of broad groups of organisms and microorganisms mentioned in the source document.

TECH

STN field for DWPI Technology Focus. For both Dialog and Questel.Orbit the corresponding field is TF. See Technology Focus.

Technology Focus

New Abstract field introduced into DWPI during 1999/2000. Includes many possible industry specific abstract headings. See New Content.

term of patent

The maximum number of years that the monopoly rights conferred by the grant of a patent may last.

Thomson Pharma

Thomson Pharma(SM) is a gateway to a portfolio of patent, scientific, and financial information products and services from across the full range of Thomson-owned businesses for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

times cited

The number of times a particular work or source article appears as a cited reference in other source articles from the more than 8,600 journals indexed by ISI for the Web of Science®.

This number appears as a part of the full record in the Web of Science.

title

Name of a book, essay, article, review, or other document type.

Some titles include a subtitle following a colon or semicolon. Translations sometimes have an alternate title in the original language.

title enhancements

These are terms added to the source title that clarify, add meaning or supply search access points that would otherwise not exist.

ISI indexers review an article title and assess the words for their ease of retrieval and their overall meaningfulness. If title words do not fit these criteria or if the title is obscure and/or ambiguous, the indexer will read the article to find its focus and add appropriate terms to the article title. In the Arts & Humanities Citation Index, this is usually indicated by putting parentheses around the enhancement terms.

NOTE: This is only done for the Arts & Humanities Citation Index. Title enhancements are a unique feature of this index.

TMP

Tailor-Made Patents Profiles.

TOPFRAG

Topological Fragmentation. Derwent software which converts chemical structure drawings, into Chemical Indexing search strategies. Forms part of STN Express for searching DWPI on STN, and part of Markush TOPFRAG for searching DWPI on all hosts. See Markush TOPFRAG.

translation

A work which has been put into the words of another language. A person who translates a work from one language to another is its "translator." Translations sometimes have an alternate title in the original language.

truncation

In a search, a word root followed by the truncation symbol will retrieve variant endings. Truncation is useful for retrieving both the singular and the plural forms of a word at the same time. See also: Boolean searching. For example, searching for the word communicat* will retrieve communication, communicate, communicates, communicator, and communicators.

TS

Thomson Scientific

TSH

Thomson Scientific & Healthcare

tutorial

A manual designed to teach a user how to use a computer system, usually in a step-by-step way. Some databases include an online tutorial.

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useful

The concept that the claims defining an invention are fit for some desirable, practical, or commercial purpose. It must have some utilitarian value.

USPTO

United States Patent and Trademark Office. The office of the U.S. Department of Commerce that is responsible for examining and issuing patents.

utility

Fitness for some desirable practical or commercial purpose.

utility model

In some countries, a type of patent which is available involving a simpler inventive step than that in a traditional patent. Such patents generally have a shorter life.

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Valid

A valid patent is an issued patent that is not invalid for one of several reasons, the most common of which is that one or more of its claims read on prior art that was not considered by the patent office during patent prosecution. While only a court can hold a patent is invalid, many patents are informally referred to as being invalid to indicate that a court would likely rule them so.

Variable

A symbol in a chemical drawing which has a set of alternative meanings, each of which is a single or multi-atomic fragment. Other terms used are ‘G group’ or ‘R group’.

VMN

Questel.Orbit file format for storing Markush structures. Produced by WPMS and used to supply data to Questel.Orbit for loading into MMS. Specific compounds are stored in the same format but with extension VMR. Associated text files have extension AMN.

volume

In serial publications, consecutive issues may be collected and bound together as a grouping. This is a volume. While most serials are collected and bound in a single volume corresponding to a single year, publications that have a high frequency of issues in a given year may be bound into more than one volume for preservation purposes.

In a bibliographic reference, the volume number takes precedence over an issue number and appears immediately after the title abbreviation.

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W

Withdrawn Phase from IDdb. A drug that has been launched on the market, but has subsequently been withdrawn from sale. This is usually due to reports of adverse effects or to manufacturing defects.

WDA

Derwent World Drug Alerts.

weekly

Any publication that has a frequency of 52 issues, corresponding to the 52 weeks in a year. In some instances, a publication may be published at a rate of 51 issues per year, allowing for a holiday week at some point over the course of the twelve month period.

Westlaw

Thomson company hosting DWPI data. See DIPF.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organization is an international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of intellectual property.

Also see Patent Cooperation Treaty.

World Wide Web

Global network of information available on computers connected to the Internet. Most Web pages are written in HTML script. To see the HTML code for the document you are presently reading, click on "View" in the toolbar of your Web browser and select "Document source" from the drop-down menu.

WPAM

File name for DWPI with API indexing on Questel.Orbit.

WPAT

1. Synonym for DWPI on Questel.Orbit. 2. Archaic term referring to DWPI on Orbit (Orbit closed in November 1999)

WPI

Derwent World Patents Index.

WPIDS

DWPI Subscriber file on STN. See also WPIX.

WPIL

Synonym for DWPI on Questel.Orbit. Archaic term for DWPI on Questel (prior to Orbit closure in November 1999)

WPIM

Derwent World Patents Index Markush.

WPINDEX

DWPI non-Subscriber file on STN.

WPIX

Derwent World Patents Index Extension (DWPIX) on STN. See DWPIX.

WPMS

Structure drawing package from HDS (variant of Psi), currently used to input Markush structures and produce VMN files. Part of ChemShell - will be superseded as part of Derwent Chemistry Resource project.

WPS

World Patents Service. Archaic umbrella term for all Derwent patent products.

WWW

An acronym which stands for "World Wide Web" (see above).

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XML

Extensible mark-up language for documents containing structured information. Structured information contains both content (words, pictures, etc.) and some indication of what role that content plays (for example, content in a section heading has a different meaning from content in a footnote, which means something different than content in a figure caption or content in a database table, etc.).

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